NOME, Alaska —
The two police officers — the chilly case detective from Virginia and the evidence technician from Alaska — had a mission. Sift through more than a decade of grim reviews from this tiny metropolis situation between the Bering Strait and Alaska’s western tundra.

Nome’s fresh police chief, another Virginia transplant, requested the 2 to untangle whether the metropolis’s police department had failed quite loads of of oldsters — most of them Alaska Native females — who had reported they’d been sexually assaulted.

So they spent weeks interior the police station on the fringe of town, squinting at pc screens and stacks of paper. What they realized afraid them.

Time and again, the recordsdata showed, officers had didn’t evaluation rapes and various sexual crimes. In some circumstances, the 2 police officers hiss, officers had by no manner wondered the suspect.

In various circumstances, they are saying, dispatchers had taken distraught calls from females announcing they’d been sexually assaulted, and no one from the department had stricken to lag to envision with them.

“I’ve by no manner seen anything like that in my career,” said the chilly case investigator, Jerry Kennon.

The two police officers had uncovered evidence confirming a pattern of inactiveness that a local team of sexual assault survivors had been protesting for years — a legislation enforcement failure that the Alaska chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union recently described as “a systemic, decades-lengthy indifference to the safety of Alaska Native females.”


This narrative used to be produced through a partnership with Nationwide Native News with increase from the Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting and the Fund for Investigative Journalism.


What has been occurring in Nome isn’t an isolated episode within the battle over sexual assault and institutional accountability. Many legislation enforcement agencies in tiny communities through the USA are going through questions on how aggressively they pursue experiences of sexual violence.

In Nome, there used to be hope that the police department used to be starting on a brand fresh route after rising public outcry led to a turnover in leadership. Earlier this three hundred and sixty five days, the metropolis’s fresh police chief, Robert Estes, launched his workers would overview 460 sexual assault circumstances going support nearly a decade and a half. Individually, advocates succeeded in getting the metropolis to create a commission to sort bigger public oversight of the police department.

Nevertheless as 2019 unfolded, the effort to overview these chilly circumstances and remake the police department used to be frustrated by bureaucratic snags and the company’s instant-handed staffing, Estes suggested The Associated Press in a most up-to-date interview.

At a metropolis council assembly in September, Estes publicly wondered local officers’ willingness to end what it takes to present protection to public security. He said his tiny company used to be struggling to present protection to the metropolis on a day-to-day basis — and it couldn’t proceed the audit of older sexual assault circumstances.

“They’re chilly circumstances for now,” he said.

He suggested council members that something wished to be done to reverse his department’s “unsustainable” route.

“I’m no longer going to settle for the anxiousness,” he said. “I must be here. I in actuality end. If alternate doesn’t advance rapid, I won’t be here.”

Two weeks later, he grew to alter into in his resignation.



When Estes, a retired police officer and longtime Army Reservist, packed up his life in Virginia 15 months ago and moved to Nome, he took over a police department with a unnerved recognition.

In 2003, a Nome police officer murdered a 19-three hundred and sixty five days-weak Alaska Native girl, Sonya Ivanoff, after selecting her up in a police car. A lawsuit claimed he’d sexually assaulted various females and that the police department knew he used to be a anxiousness.

In the course of worthy of 2018, residents packed metropolis council meetings to criticize the department’s inactiveness on sexual violence and various concerns.

Lower than two weeks sooner than Estes’ arrival in September 2018, a broken-down police dispatcher accused the department of failing to evaluation her sage that she’d been drugged and raped.

Quickly after Estes arrived, a high college basketball coach from St. Michael, an Alaska Native village on the assorted facet of the Norton Sound, went public with her complaint that police had didn’t evaluation her sage she’d been raped for the length of a talk over with to Nome in August.

Their complaints had been starting up expressions of a wretchedness that had been quietly playing out for years. Nome police data reviewed by the AP mask that from 2008 through 2017, true 8% of calls about sexual assaults against adults led to arrests with prices filed.

As a ways support as 2015, a team of Alaska Native survivors of sexual and domestic violence circulated an electronic mail amongst community groups, tribal leaders and others, announcing that many survivors’ circumstances had been mishandled or no longer investigated at all. Some believed their complaints had been brushed off attributable to racial bias.

For years, team members hiss, they tried one manner after another with police and metropolis officers, but couldn’t receive answers to current questions on police coverage and training requirements.

In a most up-to-date letter to the ACLU, lawyers representing the metropolis of Nome said metropolis officers “reject the assertion that the Police Division brushed off and didn’t evaluation claims of sexual assault attributable to deliberate indifference to the civil rights of Alaska Native females. The Nome Police Division administers police products and services in a nondiscriminatory manner.”

Nevertheless almost the total roughly 100 sexual assault chilly circumstances that Kennon and the department’s evidence technician reviewed concerned Alaska Native victims. Proper over half of Nome’s inhabitants is Alaska Native.

To abet him lead Nome’s embattled police force, Estes brought in three various law enforcement officers who’d moreover retired from his broken-down employer — the Chesterfield County Police Division, which serves a swath of the Richmond, Virginia, suburbs.

Many Nome residents dubbed the four of them “the Virginia Boys.” Some residents had their doubts, partly because Estes had been employed rapid with out community input amid outrage over the general public department’s lack of transparency.

Estes said he understood coming in that constructing have faith used to be critical.

Jeanette Koelsch, a member of the Nome Eskimo Community’s tribal council, used to be joyful that soon after Estes arrived, he appeared at the group’s annual assembly.

Koelsch suggested the AP she used to be troubled, even supposing, when he urged forming a team of females to address the wretchedness of females getting assaulted downtown. His remarks moreover concerned on things females can also end to present protection to themselves from sexual violence — such as going out in groups and warding off alcohol.

“It’s about teaching consent,” Koelsch said. “Perhaps as an different of rising a team of females to address a wretchedness that males end, you ought to create a team of males to focus on” how they’ll smash rape.

Estes said he wasn’t littered with the pointed questions he got at instances at community gatherings.

Many folks felt their voices had been brushed off, he said, and it used to make sure there used to be “hundreds of bother occurring amongst hundreds of oldsters.”



When civil rights activist Tarana Burke based #MeToo in 2006, she wished to center the dawdle on females of shade. Nevertheless the voices of minorities, who on the complete expertise greater rates of sexual assault, had been pushed to the margins as #MeToo grew to alter into an even bigger social phenomenon in 2016.

Media experiences and public debate in discovering largely spotlighted high-profile circumstances arresting politicians and celebrities, such as Hollywood prosperous person Harvey Weinstein, who’s scheduled to lag to trial on prison prices in New York in January.

Advocates against sexual violence hiss police and prosecutors in quite loads of tiny towns and rural counties peaceable don’t mask ample commitment to investigating sexual assaults — and in some circumstances meet experiences of rape with intense disbelief.

“From our perspective, #MeToo has positively empowered survivors of sexual assault to advance forward,” Kelly Miller, the executive director of the Idaho Coalition In opposition to Sexual & Home Violence, said. “Nevertheless it definitely’s had diminutive to no end on the vogue the map responds.”

In 2016, a sheriff in Idaho suggested a TV reporter that in his rural county “the majority of our rapes which would be referred to as in are in truth consensual intercourse.”

After an uproar, Bingham County Sheriff Craig Rowland apologized, announcing he’d “misspoke.” He said every sexual assault complaint that comes into his department will get totally investigated.

Levette Kelly Johnson, executive director of the Mississippi Coalition In opposition to Sexual Assault, said legislation enforcement attitudes about rape fluctuate from area to area. In some tiny communities, she said, sheriffs and police chiefs mark the wretchedness and commit important consideration to combating sexual violence. Nevertheless “what happens,” she said, “when he retires or loses an election and any individual else is available in and it’s no longer a precedence?”

In Nome, Alaska Native females main efforts to make stronger police response understood this. They delivered a proper sage to the metropolis that pushed for lasting alternate, no longer true a personnel turnover. “We’d like coverage,” said Lisa Ellanna, a member of the survivor advocacy team. “Policy doesn’t price anything. . . . It would possibly well maybe most likely most likely perchance well defend there, no matter who’s available in subsequent, exact?”

Specialists on sexual violence hiss victims in rural areas on the complete in discovering runt receive admission to to clinical, lawful and psychological abet. And living in locations the set apart “all individuals knows all individuals” can mean that survivors are less seemingly to advance forward because they know this would possibly well maybe be tougher to retain their anonymity than in an metropolis apartment.

It ought to moreover mean police can also simply know sexual violence suspects through family, college or various ties, complicating investigations and once in a whereas elevating questions on objectivity.

Gretchen Puny, a police officer in Nome from 2004 to 2006, said she used to be ordered to smash a sexual assault investigation arresting a white suspect and a 14-three hundred and sixty five days-weak Alaska Native victim because a sergeant knew the man and said he didn’t have confidence he would end this sort of thing.

“He doesn’t end ladies,” the sergeant said, per Puny. “He excellent will get females at the bar inebriated and takes them out within the tundra for intercourse. . . . He’s a correct man.”



Puny reached out to expose her narrative after the AP printed an investigation of the police department in September. She used to be employed in 2004 to replace Matthew Clay Owens, the Nome police officer who used to be sentenced to 101 years in penal advanced for murdering Sonya Ivanoff.

Quickly after she started, Puny said, she realized that the department recurrently didn’t evaluation sexual assault experiences from Alaska Native females.

Puny said Alaska Native females whose rapes went uninvestigated had been weak to extra assaults. “You potentially can also true stare it of their eyes after a failed case.” They wouldn’t anxiousness to sage the following time, she said.

“That’s how deep the bias goes,” she said. “Native females don’t depend.”

Puny suggested the AP that in a single sexual assault case any individual within the department falsified a police sage to veil up the reality that an officer had didn’t do away with action after an Alaska Native girl reported a man with a felony sexual assault sage had tried to rape her.

Preston Stotts, a broken-down Nome police sergeant who worked with Puny for the length of his 15 years at the department, suggested the AP that she used to be focused and discriminated against because she used to be female — and used to be “in overall forced off the department and out of that area because she wished to in truth freaking end some police work.”

Puny said that when she left the department in 2006 she wrote a letter to metropolis council members informing them of her concerns. A police e-book interviewed her, but nothing got here of her complaint, Puny and Stotts suggested the AP.

Stotts said the department endured brushing off sexual assault circumstances after Puny left the department — and stored doing so at the least until he left in 2017.



Puny used to be unnerved by how attitudes toward sexual violence had been coloured by whether the alleged victim had been ingesting alcohol.

In one case, Puny said, an Alaska Native girl suggested her that she had been ingesting at a bar after which had wakened to search out herself bare in a hotel room with several males. The girl, who suspected she’d been drugged, reported that one amongst the males suggested her that more than 5 males had raped her over and over whereas she used to be handed out, Puny said.

When she went support to the police station to learn suspects’ names and addresses, Puny suggested the AP, two fellow officers requested her what she used to be working on, then laughed and said the incident used to be “no longer rape. She used to be inebriated.”

When she identified that it used to be against the law to in discovering intercourse with any individual who used to be unconscious, she recalled, they “laughed and pointed to a stack of case recordsdata.” When a victim has a historic previous of ingesting or promiscuity, they explained, the case would “by no manner be acted upon.”

Barbara Amarok, the broken-down director of Nome’s Bering Sea Girls’s Group, which helps females making an attempt to search out security from violence, suggested AP that there remains to be “a mindset — no longer true interior legislation enforcement but interior community members — that when things like this occur . . . it’s an person’s fault. This person acted in obvious options to enable this to occur.”

In Nome, concerns with shame and blame are on the complete tied up with stereotypes referring to the consumption of alcohol and how those stereotypes are utilized to Alaska Native residents. Some residents had been angered two years ago when the metropolis’s tourism bureau printed a photo of two females laying face down and unconscious on the bare ground, bare from the waist down — portraying them as eyesores relatively than most likely victims of sexual violence.

District Attorney John Earthman says majority of sexual crimes against adults in Nome involve “voluntary intoxication,” and “some assemble of sexual misconduct with a handed-out or in any other case unaware person.” If the accused claims it used to be consensual, he said “you’re going to in discovering a tough time proving in a jury trial that they knew” the victim used to be incapacitated.

Prosecution experts agree that these are sophisticated circumstances, but hiss they are prosecutable.

“You in truth ought to be drawn to procuring for the reality, do away with the time to in truth consult with folks, and never true decrease the case as no longer critical, or true some inebriated intercourse,” said Jennifer Prolonged, co-founding father of AEquitas, a nationwide group that trains professionals on sexual violence investigation and litigation.

“What everyone knows about victims is that there’s an wonderful level of self-blame for the total hiss — and being weak is no longer against the law, even supposing in these circumstances it definitely is aged against the victim.”



Estes launched the audit of the metropolis’s sexual assault circumstances in early 2019. In his first weeks as police chief, he’d heard the worries and decided his department wished to fathom the extent of the wretchedness.

“One case or a hundred — if you’re unable to effectively evaluation and case situation up, that’s a travesty,” he suggested the AP recently. “All individuals is due justice. Duration.”

He grew to alter into to two workers — Kennon, the broken-down chilly case investigator from Virginia, and Paul Kosto, a broken-down Alaska enlighten trooper Estes had employed as an explanation tech. Kennon and Kosto situation out to overview 460 sexual assault circumstances going support 14 years.

Kosto said it rapid grew to alter into sure the department hadn’t offered officers with ample coaching on gathering and preserving evidence and writing experiences.

Kennon said he didn’t deem all officers had been accountable. Some appeared to in discovering done acceptable investigations.

The department despatched an initial team of 76 case recordsdata to the district attorney’s place of work to stare whether there in discovering been grounds for prosecution. The DA’s place of work rejected 57 of them, but despatched 19 support with a ask of for more investigation.

Estes suggested the AP that he used to be “cautiously optimistic” over the spring and summer season that things had been transferring within the exact route with the department.

Nevertheless he used to be frustrated by his inability to end something referring to the department’s staffing. The department has true over 20 workers, in conjunction with dispatchers and increase workers. That makes it exhausting to pursue in-depth investigations. And that on the complete manner there’s excellent one officer on the boulevard per shift — a unsafe wretchedness, he said, for every officers and voters.

Without ample workers to veil day-to-day requires, Estes said, he used to be forced to tug Kennon off the chilly case overview for several months.

Estes, Kennon and Kosto deliberate to renew the case audit in early September. The three of them hiss that sooner than Kennon and Kosto can also receive started, the metropolis’s length in-between metropolis manager at the time, John Handeland, started pushing to total the chilly case audit for correct.

City leaders wished to treat the chilly circumstances as “water beneath the bridge,” Estes said.

In an electronic mail, Handeland declined comment.



Estes went public with his concerns about his department’s staffing and route at a metropolis council assembly on Sept. 23. At one point, he paused, overcome with emotion, and left the assembly room.

He returned with an apology for “losing it.” He said the wretchedness wasn’t about him — your complete community used to be being harm.

Estes submitted his resignation in early October. He suggested the AP recently that after the council assembly it grew to alter into sure the metropolis wasn’t involving to behave on his concerns.

“Perhaps I didn’t indicate it basically the most productive manner I will also in discovering,” Estes said. Nevertheless “it wasn’t true me explaining the concerns. There in discovering been various folks interior the metropolis who knew — and know — that alternate is wished.”

He’s now support in Virginia, but he said he and his wife stay fond of Nome. “We’ve made lifelong associates,” he said.

The metropolis is conducting a search to rent Estes’ replace and now has a brand fresh metropolis manager, Glenn Steckman, who has a track sage as a local executive administrator within the Lower 48 states. He suggested the AP that he is working with the police department to raise on extra investigative abet, which would enable it to restart the chilly case overview in early 2020.

In the period in-between, the Alaska chapter of the ACLU has despatched a letter informing the metropolis that it’s preparing a lawsuit on behalf of Clarice “Bun” Hardy, the broken-down Nome police dispatcher who says she couldn’t receive her possess department to evaluation her rape sage.

In a letter replying to the ACLU, lawyers for Nome’s insurance coverage company asserted that Hardy has no case, because deciding whether to evaluation a prison complaint is a “discretionary” matter. “The City of Nome is relaxed to Ms. Hardy’s wretchedness, but disputes lawful liability for the emotional harm and trauma that you just record on your letter,” the lawyers wrote.

Sexual assault survivors and their advocates hiss the lawyers’ letter felt like a gut punch to females who made the subtle resolution to lag public in 2018.

“Now what we’re seeing is the folks who did advance forward, that laid themselves on the road, made themselves weak — they are in truth being disrespected by the metropolis,” said Ellanna, a member of the survivors advocacy team who used to be recently appointed to the metropolis’s fresh public security commission.

Koelsch, the Nome Eskimo Community tribal council member, said things are worse now than they had been a three hundred and sixty five days ago. Staffing woes and various turmoil at the police department, she said, in discovering left many folks terrified for his or her security.

“In overall we in discovering now a public emergency on our arms,” she said. When Estes got here in as police chief, “I felt hopeful. I did. Because he did appear to be on the up-and-up.”

“Now,” she said, “I don’t in discovering any hope.”

For the females who in discovering been struggling with for alternate, the departure of Nome’s police chief is another in a lengthy line of setbacks. For them, so hundreds of their days and nights are spent grappling with crises — once in a whereas in interior most, once in a whereas in public.

They receive calls within the guts of the evening because another girl has been raped, and lag out to “increase but another one who can also simply or can also simply no longer even receive their case brought to a DA,” per Darlene Trigg, a member of the survivors advocacy team. They do away with turns, too, going to public meetings and speaking out to retain concerns with public security and interior most bother on the community’s agenda.

The burden of doing all here is laborious, Trigg said, then again it’s the acceptable manner to sort obvious victims of sexual violence are supported and that the wretchedness doesn’t receive pushed support onto the margins of public debate.

“It takes diligence and a fixed watch,” Trigg said. “If we’re silent, all this can also simply fit to the wayside.”


Michael Hudson in New York contributed to this narrative.


To listen to voices of some of the most folks smitten by Nome’s struggles over sexual assault, hear to the podcast sequence that the AP’s partner on this mission, Nationwide Native News, has launched at https://www.nativenews.fetch/ready-for-justice-in-nome-alaska/ .

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